Burton, Nancy Allen (Bozarth) - F 1816/02/05

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                      The Life of Burton, Nancy Allen (Bozarth)
1816/02/05 to 1879/--/-- female One child
...Date... AGE Event
1816/--/-- -1 - Gioacchino Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville is performed in Rome.
1816/--/-- -1 - Indiana is inaugurated as the 19th state of the Union.
1816/--/-- -1 - Maria I of Portugal dies; she is succeeded by John VI who remains in exile in Brazil.
1816/--/-- -1 - Nepal is made a protectorate of British India.
1816/--/-- -1 - Shaka begins establishing the Zulu empire in South Africa.
1816/--/-- -1 - The British Museum buys the Elgin Marbles (smuggled from Greece by Lord Elgin).
1816/--/-- -1 - The United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (Argentina) declare independence.
1816/02/05 0 *** Burton, Nancy Allen (Bozarth) - Born White County, Tennessee
1817/--/-- 0 - Construction begins on Erie Canal in New York
1817/--/-- 0 - Construction of the Erie Canal begins in New York State.
1817/--/-- 0 - First Seminole War
1817/--/-- 0 - French physician Rene Laennec invents the stethoscope.
1817/--/-- 0 - James Monroe (Democratic Republican) becomes president of the United States
1817/--/-- 0 - Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O'Higgins defeat the Spanish in Chile.
1817/--/-- 0 - Mississippi is inaugurated as the 20th state of the Union.
1817/--/-- 0 - Monroe is inaugurated as the 5th U.S. president; Tompkins becomes vice-president.
1817/--/-- 0 - Sir Walter Scott writes the Scottish adventure novel Rob Roy.
1818/--/-- 1 - Arthur Schopenhauer publishes The World as Will and Representation.
1818/--/-- 1 - Bernardo O'Higgins becomes the supreme director of independent Chile.
1818/--/-- 1 - Composer Franz Schubert becomes the music teacher to Count Esterhazy's family.
1818/--/-- 1 - English chemist Sir Humphry Davy invents the miner's safety lamp.
1818/--/-- 1 - Illinois is inaugurated as the 21st state of the Union.
1818/--/-- 1 - John Keats "Endymion"
1818/--/-- 1 - Mary Wollstonecroft Shelley publishes the horror novel Frankenstein.
1818/--/-- 1 - Sir John Ross sails in search of the Northwest Passage.
1818/--/-- 1 - Thomas Love Peacock publishes his comic novel Nightmare Abbey.
1818/--/-- 1 - Treaty with Britain sets 49th parallel
1819/--/-- 2 - Alabama is inaugurated as the 22nd state of the Union.
1819/--/-- 2 - American artist Washington Allston paints Moonlit Landscape.
1819/--/-- 2 - Bolivar defeats the Spanish in Colombia at the Battle of Boyaca.
1819/--/-- 2 - Lord Byron begins his satirical poem Don Juan.
1819/--/-- 2 - Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles acquires Singapore for the East India Company.
1819/--/-- 2 - Spain surrenders East and West Florida to the U.S. in the Adams-Onis Treaty.
1819/--/-- 2 - The Prado Museum is inaugurated in Madrid.
1819/--/-- 2 - The Savannah becomes the first steamship to cross the Atlantic.
1819/--/-- 2 - Treaty with Spain sets boundaries
1820/--/-- 3 - Carbonari Italian nationalists rebel against the rule of Ferdinand I in Naples.
1820/--/-- 3 - English poet John Keats writes Ode To a Nightingale.
1820/--/-- 3 - English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley writes Prometheus Unbound.
1820/--/-- 3 - Fed offers land at $1.25 an acre
1820/--/-- 3 - French navigator Dumont d'Urville discovers the Venus de Milo on the island of Melos.
1820/--/-- 3 - French poet Alphonse de Lamartine publishes Meditations Poetiques.
1820/--/-- 3 - Henri Christophe commits suicide; Haiti is united under Jean Pierre Boyer.
1820/--/-- 3 - Juan Manuel de Rosas becomes the virtual dictator of Argentina.
1820/--/-- 3 - Maine is inaugurated as the 23rd state of the Union.
1820/--/-- 3 - Missouri Compromise
1820/--/-- 3 - Percy Bysshe Shelly "Prometheus Unbound"
1820/--/-- 3 - Russian Admiral Fabian von Bellingshausen sights land in the Antarctic.
1820/--/-- 3 - Stephen H. Long explores the Rocky Mountain region.
1820/--/-- 3 - The Missouri Compromise admits Missouri to the Union as a slave state.
1820/--/-- 3 - The Prince Regent becomes King George IV on the death of George III.
1820/--/-- 3 - The first American missionaries are admitted to Hawaii.
1820/--/-- 3 - The first free American slaves to be resettled in Africa land in Liberia.
1820/--/-- 3 - U.S. navy hero Stephen Decatur is killed in a duel.
1820/--/-- 3 - Washington Irving publishes Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.
1821/--/-- 4 - American captain John Davis is the first to land on the continent of Antarctica.
1821/--/-- 4 - Bolivar forms Gran Colombia (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama).
1821/--/-- 4 - Brazil annexes the Banda Oriental (Uruguay).
1821/--/-- 4 - English landscape artist John Constable paints The Hay Wain.
1821/--/-- 4 - King John VI is reinstated on the Portuguese throne.
1821/--/-- 4 - Mexican Independence
1821/--/-- 4 - Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic rotation
1821/--/-- 4 - Missouri Compromise
1821/--/-- 4 - Missouri is inaugurated as the 24th state of the Union.
1821/--/-- 4 - Napoleon dies on Saint Helena.
1821/--/-- 4 - Revolutionary general San Martin enters Lima and declares Peru independent.
1821/--/-- 4 - Revolutionary leader Iturbide declares Mexican independence from Spain.
1821/--/-- 4 - Simon Bolivar defeats the Spanish forces in Venezuela and Ecuador.
1821/--/-- 4 - The Cherokee Indian Sequoya develops the Cherokee written language.
1821/--/-- 4 - The Greek War of Independence begins against Turkey.
1821/--/-- 4 - Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium Eater is published.
1821/07/09 5 - George IV crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland at Westminster Abbey by Char
1822/--/-- 5 - American surgeon William Beaumont begins his study of the gastric process.
1822/--/-- 5 - Antonio Jose de Sucre defeats the Spanish in Ecuador at the Battle of Pichincha.
1822/--/-- 5 - British statesman Lord Castlereagh commits suicide.
1822/--/-- 5 - Denmark Vesey leads a slave revolt in Charleston; 35 blacks are executed.
1822/--/-- 5 - Dom Pedro, son of Portuguese King John VI, declares Brazil independent.
1822/--/-- 5 - Egyptian leader Muhammad Ali completes the conquest of northern Sudan.
1822/--/-- 5 - French scholar Jean Francois Champollion deciphers the Rosetta Stone hieroglyphics.
1823/--/-- 6 - Charles Babbage begins work on his difference engine, a precursor of the computer.
1823/--/-- 6 - Charles Lamb publishes his Essays of Elia in The London Magazine.
1823/--/-- 6 - Charles Macintosh patents the waterproof fabric used in mackintosh raincoats.
1823/--/-- 6 - General Santa Anna leads a coup against Mexican Emperor Agustin I (Iturbide).
1823/--/-- 6 - James Fenimore Cooper publishes the first volume of The Leatherstocking Tales.
1823/--/-- 6 - Japanese artist Hokusai begins a series of Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji.
1823/--/-- 6 - Ludwig van Beethoven completes his 9th Symphony.
1823/--/-- 6 - Monroe Doctrine
1823/--/-- 6 - Rugby football originates at Rugby School in England.
1823/--/-- 6 - The Monroe Doctrine warns Europe not to interfere in the Americas.
1824/--/-- 7 - De Sucre defeats the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho, liberating Peru.
1824/--/-- 7 - Disputes over the border of India lead to war between Britain and Burma.
1824/--/-- 7 - English poet Lord Byron travels to Greece to aid the patriots but dies of a fever.
1824/--/-- 7 - Jons Jakob Berzelius discovers the element silicon about this time.
1824/--/-- 7 - Sadi Carnot lays the foundations for the second law of thermodynamics.
1824/--/-- 7 - The Ashanti begin a war of resistance against Britain in the Gold Coast (Ghana).
1824/--/-- 7 - The Ashanti begin a war of resistance against Britain in the Gold Coast (Ghana).
1824/--/-- 7 - The National Gallery is founded in London.
1825/--/-- 8 - Adams is inaugurated as the 6th U.S. president; Calhoun becomes vice-president.
1825/--/-- 8 - American painter Thomas Cole founds the Hudson River School about this time.
1825/--/-- 8 - English literary critic William Hazlitt publishes The Spirit of the Age.
1825/--/-- 8 - John Quincy Adams (Democratic Republican) becomes president of the United States
1825/--/-- 8 - Kappa Alpha, the first social fraternity, is formed at Union College, New York.
1825/--/-- 8 - Mountain man James Bridger discovers the Great Salt Lake.
1825/--/-- 8 - Nicholas I is made emperor of Russia; the Decembrists revolt breaks out.
1825/--/-- 8 - The Central American Federation declares its independence from Mexico.
1825/--/-- 8 - Thomas Cole establishes Hudson River school of landscape painting
1825/--/-- 8 - Uruguayan leader Lavalleja precipitates a war between Brazil and Argentina.
1825/--/-- 8 - Welsh reformer Robert Owen founds a community at New Harmony, Indiana.
1826/--/-- 9 - American engineer John Stevens builds the first U.S. steam locomotive.
1826/--/-- 9 - Andre Ampere publishes his Theory of Electrodynamic Phenomenon.
1826/--/-- 9 - British engineer Thomas Telford builds the Menai suspension bridge in Wales.
1826/--/-- 9 - Felix Mendelssohn composes his overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream at age 17.
1826/--/-- 9 - German poet Heine begins the publication of Reisebilder (Travel Pictures).
1826/--/-- 9 - Ohm's law establishes the relationship of electrical voltage, current and resistance.
1826/--/-- 9 - Revolutionary leader Antonio Jose de Sucre is elected first president of Bolivia.
1827/--/-- 10 - American frontiersman Davy Crockett is elected to Congress.
1827/--/-- 10 - Audubon publishes " Birds of America"
1827/--/-- 10 - Britain, France and Russia demand that Turkey ends the war with Greece.
1827/--/-- 10 - English inventor John Walker introduces the first friction matches.
1827/--/-- 10 - French landscape artist Camille Corot paints the Bridge at Narni.
1827/--/-- 10 - Mountain man Jedediah Smith pioneers an overland route to California.
1827/--/-- 10 - Ornithologist John James Audubon begins the publication of his Birds of America.
1827/--/-- 10 - The Allied navies destroy the Turkish and Egyptian fleet at Navarino in Greece.
1828/--/-- 11 - Composer Frederic Chopin begins concert tours at age 18.
1828/--/-- 11 - Greeks win War of Independence from Ottoman Empire
1828/--/-- 11 - Lavalleja's Thirty-three Immortals achieve Uruguayan independence from Brazil.
1828/--/-- 11 - Noah Webster publishes his American Dictionary of the English Language.
1828/--/-- 11 - Rammohun Roy founds the Brahmo Samaj religious society in India.
1828/--/-- 11 - The Duke of Wellington becomes prime minister of Britain.
1828/--/-- 11 - Virtuoso violin player Niccolo Paganini performs in Vienna.
1829/--/-- 12 - Andrew Jackson (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1829/--/-- 12 - Delacroix paints "Death of Sardanapalus"
1829/--/-- 12 - Explorer Charles Sturt charts the Murray River in Australia.
1829/--/-- 12 - Jackson introduces spoils system
1829/--/-- 12 - Jackson is inaugurated as the 7th U.S. president; Calhoun continues as vice-president.
1829/--/-- 12 - Lord Bentinck bans the Indian custom of suttee (the burning of widows).
1829/--/-- 12 - Louis Braille publishes his braille system of writing for the blind.
1829/--/-- 12 - Serbia becomes an autonomous principality under Prince Milos.
1829/--/-- 12 - Sir Robert Peel reorganizes the London police; his policemen are nicknamed Bobbies.
1829/--/-- 12 - Sir Robert Peel sponsers the Catholic Emancipation Act in Britain.
1829/--/-- 12 - The convict-free British colony of Western Australia is founded.
1829/--/-- 12 - The first U.S. encyclopedia, the Encyclopedia Americana, is begun.
1830/--/-- 13 - Belgium asserts its independence from the Netherlands.
1830/--/-- 13 - British geologist Charles Lyell begins publishing his Principles of Geology.
1830/--/-- 13 - Fructuoso Rivera is elected as first president of Uruguay.
1830/--/-- 13 - George Catlin begins his paintings of North American Indians about this time.
1830/--/-- 13 - Greece becomes independent from Turkey.
1830/--/-- 13 - Hector Berlioz composes his first major work the Symphonie Fantastique.
1830/--/-- 13 - Indian Removal Act moves eastern Indians west of Mississippi
1830/--/-- 13 - Joseph Smith founds the Mormon church at Fayette, New York.
1830/--/-- 13 - Louis Philippe is chosen as the citizen king of France.
1830/--/-- 13 - Philipon publishes the satirical weekly La Caricature, with contributions by Daumier.
1830/--/-- 13 - Polish rebellions are suppressed by Russia.
1830/--/-- 13 - Simon Bolivar resigns as dictator of Gran Colombia, he dies later in the year.
1830/--/-- 13 - The Indian Removal Act is passed to move the southeastern tribes to Indian Territory.
1830/--/-- 13 - The July Revolution in France forces the abdication of Charles X.
1830/--/-- 13 - The Women's magazine Godey's Lady's Book is published in the U.S.
1830/--/-- 13 - The locomotive Best Friend of Charleston is in use on the first U.S. railroad.
1830/--/-- 13 - William IV succeeds George IV as king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
1831/--/-- 14 - British naturalist Charles Darwin sails to South America aboard H.M.S. Beagle.
1831/--/-- 14 - Cyrus McCormick invents a mechanical reaper.
1831/--/-- 14 - Explorer James Clark Ross determines the position of the north magnetic pole.
1831/--/-- 14 - Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini founds the Young Italy movement.
1831/--/-- 14 - Jose Antonio Paez becomes the first president of Venezuela.
1831/--/-- 14 - King Louis Philippe founds the French foreign legion.
1831/--/-- 14 - Leopold I is selected as the first king of Belgium.
1831/--/-- 14 - Michael Faraday demonstrates his theory of electromagnetic induction.
1831/--/-- 14 - Nat Turner leads a black slave revolt in Virginia; he is captured and hanged.
1831/--/-- 14 - Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin completes his masterpiece Eugene Onegin.
1831/--/-- 14 - The crown colony of British Guiana (Guyana) is formed.
1831/--/-- 14 - Victor Hugo "Hunchback of Notre Dame"
1831/--/-- 14 - William Lloyd Garrison publishes the abolitionist newspaper the Liberator.
1832/--/-- 15 *** Burton, Nancy Allen (Bozarth) & Bozarth, William [Husband] - Married White County Tennessee
1832/--/-- 15 - George Sand (Aurore Dudevant) publishes her first novel Indiana.
1832/--/-- 15 - Japanese artist Hiroshige begins work on Fifty-three Stages of the Tokaido.
1832/--/-- 15 - Samuel F.B. Morse designs improved electromagnetic telegraph
1832/--/-- 15 - The Black Hawk War is the last major Indian conflict east of the Mississippi River.
1832/--/-- 15 - The Democratic party is formally established as a national organization.
1833/--/-- 16 - A Bavarian prince becomes King Otto of Greece.
1833/--/-- 16 - Britain occupies the Falkland Islands.
1833/--/-- 16 - Carl von Clausewitz's classic study of warfare On War is published.
1833/--/-- 16 - General Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico.
1833/--/-- 16 - Isabella II succeeds Ferdinand VII, King of Spain; the Carlist Wars begin.
1833/--/-- 16 - President Jackson withdraws federal deposits from the Bank of the United States.
1833/--/-- 16 - Santa Anna elected President of Mexico
1833/--/-- 16 - The American Anti-Slavery Society is inaugurated in Philadelphia.
1833/--/-- 16 - Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame is published in English.
1833/05/28 17 *** Bozarth, James Henry [Son] - Born to Bozarth, William and Burton, Nancy Allen (Bozarth) White County Tennessee Birth could have been 1827 instead of 1833
1834/--/-- 17 - A Quadruple Alliance is formed to aid Isabella II of Spain and Maria II of Portugal.
1834/--/-- 17 - American inventor Jacob Perkins patents the first practical ice-making machine.
1834/--/-- 17 - British politician Sir Robert Peel founds the Conservative Party.
1834/--/-- 17 - Indian Territory founded
1834/--/-- 17 - Slavery abolished in British Empire
1834/--/-- 17 - The Carlist Wars resume in Spain.
1834/--/-- 17 - The Hansom cab is designed; it becomes the standard horse-drawn cab in London.
1834/--/-- 17 - The Whig party is formed to oppose Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party.
1835/--/-- 18 - American settlers begin the Texas Revolution against Mexican rule.
1835/--/-- 18 - Attempts to move the Seminole Indians begins the second Seminole War.
1835/--/-- 18 - Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen publishes Tales Told for Children.
1835/--/-- 18 - French politician Alexis de Tocqueville publishes Democracy in America.
1835/--/-- 18 - James Gordon Bennett founds the New York Herald newspaper.
1835/--/-- 18 - Second Seminole War in Florida
1836/--/-- 19 - American educator William Holmes McGuffey begins editing his Readers.
1836/--/-- 19 - American inventor Samuel Colt begins manufacturing the first revolver.
1836/--/-- 19 - American literary figure Ralph Waldo Emerson founds the Transcendental Club.
1836/--/-- 19 - Arkansas is inaugurated as the 25th state of the Union.
1836/--/-- 19 - Boer (Afrikaner) settlers begin the Great Trek into the South African interior.
1836/--/-- 19 - Bolivian president Santa Cruz invades Peru and forms the Peru-Bolivian Confederation.
1836/--/-- 19 - Charles Barry designs Westminster Palace in the Gothic Revival style.
1836/--/-- 19 - Charles Dickens publishes his first popular work The Pickwick Papers.
1836/--/-- 19 - John C. Calhoun supports the gag rules to prevent Congress debating slavery.
1836/--/-- 19 - Republic of Texas forms
1836/--/-- 19 - Russian author Nikolai Gogol writes his play The Inspector General.
1836/--/-- 19 - Santa Anna's army storms the Alamo in Texas, killing the defenders.
1836/--/-- 19 - Texans under Sam Houston defeat Santa Anna at the San Jacinto River.
1836/--/-- 19 - Texas Revolution
1836/--/-- 19 - The Arc de Triomphe, the world's largest triumphal arch, is completed in Paris.
1837/--/-- 20 - Britain's refusal to grant more home rule in Canada leads to the Rebellions of 1837.
1837/--/-- 20 - British scientist Charles Wheatstone designs an electric telegraph system.
1837/--/-- 20 - Charles Dickens "Oliver Twist"
1837/--/-- 20 - Louis Daguerre invents the daguerreotype method for taking permanent photographs.
1837/--/-- 20 - Martin Van Buren (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1837/--/-- 20 - Michigan is inaugurated as the 26th state of the Union.
1837/--/-- 20 - Mikhail Lermontov writes the Death of a Poet, inspired by the death of Pushkin.
1837/--/-- 20 - Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin is killed in a duel.
1837/--/-- 20 - Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle publishes The French Revolution.
1837/--/-- 20 - Seminole Indian leader Osceola is captured.
1837/--/-- 20 - Van Buren is inaugurated as the 8th U.S. president; Johnson becomes vice-president.
1837/--/-- 20 - William IV dies; Victoria succeeds him as Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
1837/06/-- 21 - Victoria succeeds as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland.
1838/--/-- 21 - Boer (Afrikaner) leader Andries Pretorius defeats the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River.
1838/--/-- 21 - British artist Joseph Mallord William Turner paints the Fighting Temeraire.
1838/--/-- 21 - Charles Wilkes heads a U.S. Navy expedition to Antarctica.
1838/--/-- 21 - Cherokee "Trail of Tears"
1838/--/-- 21 - French philosopher Auguste Comte inaugurates the science of sociology.
1838/--/-- 21 - Iowa Territory organized
1838/--/-- 21 - John Deere develops a steel-tipped plow capable of turning heavy prairie soil.
1838/--/-- 21 - Samuel F.B. Morse develops the Morse code for electric telegraph systems.
1838/--/-- 21 - Scottish blacksmith Kirkpatrick Macmillan makes the first pedal-driven bicycle.
1838/06/08 22 - Victoria crowned Queen of Great Britain and Ireland at Westminster Abbey by Will
1839/--/-- 22 - American inventor Charles Goodyear develops the vulcanization of rubber.
1839/--/-- 22 - Chile defeats Santa Cruz's Peru-Bolivian Confederation at the Battle of Yungay.
1839/--/-- 22 - Daguerre invents first form of photography
1839/--/-- 22 - French novelist Stendhal writes The Charterhouse of Parma.
1839/--/-- 22 - Hungarian composer and pianist Franz Liszt embarks on a concert tour of Europe.
1839/--/-- 22 - Jose Rafael Carrera captures Guatemala; the Central American Federation is dissolved.
1839/--/-- 22 - Stephens and Catherwood explore Maya ruins in the Yucatan.
1839/--/-- 22 - The Anglo-Afghan Wars begin in Afghanistan.
1839/--/-- 22 - The Opium Wars begin between Britain and China.
1839/--/-- 22 - Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden formulate the cell theory.
1840/--/-- 23 - Civil War breaks out in Uruguay between the Colorados (reds) and Blancos (whites).
1840/--/-- 23 - Edgar Allen Poe: "Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque"
1840/--/-- 23 - French philosopher and anarchist Pierre Joseph Proudhon writes What is Property.
1840/--/-- 23 - Horatio Greenough's classical statue of George Washington is strongly criticized.
1840/--/-- 23 - Maori chiefs sign over their tribal lands to Queen Victoria in the Treaty of Waitangi.
1840/--/-- 23 - Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg.
1840/--/-- 23 - Swiss-American naturalist Louis Agassiz postulates his theory of ice ages.
1840/--/-- 23 - The Liberty party is founded in Albany, N.Y. based exclusively on an antislavery platform.
1840/--/-- 23 - The Underground Railroad is active in helping escaping slaves in the U.S.
1840/--/-- 23 - The first adhesive postage stamp, the Penny Black, is issued in London.
1840/--/-- 23 - The metric system of measurement is reinstated in France.
1840/--/-- 23 - Upper and Lower Canada are united in the single Province of Canada.
1840/--/-- 23 - Upper and lower Canada united
1841/--/-- 24 - Edgar Allan Poe writes an early detective story The Murders in the Rue Morgue.
1841/--/-- 24 - George Grey is appointed governor of South Australia to help save the colony.
1841/--/-- 24 - Harrison is inaugurated as the 9th U.S. president; Tyler becomes vice-president.
1841/--/-- 24 - Horace Greeley founds the New York Tribune newspaper.
1841/--/-- 24 - Italian ballerina Carlotta Grisi creates the role of Giselle.
1841/--/-- 24 - John Tyler (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1841/--/-- 24 - Muhammad Ali defeats the Ottomans and becomes the hereditary ruler of Egypt.
1841/--/-- 24 - New Zealand is established as a separate British colony.
1841/--/-- 24 - President Harrison dies; John Tyler is inaugurated as the 10th U.S. president
1841/--/-- 24 - Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne resigns; he is succeeded by Sir Robert Peel.
1841/--/-- 24 - William Henry Harrison (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1841/--/-- 24 - William Henry Talbot patents the calotype photographic process.
1842/--/-- 25 - 10-hour day for children under 12 in Massachusetts
1842/--/-- 25 - American explorer John C. Fremont begins surveying the Oregon Trail.
1842/--/-- 25 - American showman P.T. Barnum discovers the 40-inch midget Tom Thumb.
1842/--/-- 25 - Austrian physicist Christian Johann Doppler predicts the Doppler effect.
1842/--/-- 25 - China cedes Hong Kong to Britain.
1842/--/-- 25 - China is defeated in the first Opium War; Chinese ports are opened to British trade.
1842/--/-- 25 - Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti writes his opera Don Pasquale.
1843/--/-- 26 - A coup in Greece forces King Otto to accept a constitutional monarchy.
1843/--/-- 26 - Black American Sojourner Truth begins her reform mission.
1843/--/-- 26 - Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard publishes Either/Or.
1843/--/-- 26 - English art critic John Ruskin begins publishing Modern Painters.
1843/--/-- 26 - German astronomer Samuel Schwabe discovers the sunspot cycle.
1844/--/-- 27 - Alexander Dumas "The Three Muskateers"
1844/--/-- 27 - Eastern Hispaniola declares independence from Haiti as the Dominican Republic.
1844/--/-- 27 - French author Alexandre Dumas (Dumas pere) publishes The Three Musketeers.
1844/--/-- 27 - Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormons, is killed by a lynch mob.
1844/--/-- 27 - Samuel F.B. Morse establishes the first U.S. telegraph link.
1844/--/-- 27 - Settlers in New South Wales force Britain to stop sending convicts to the colony.
1844/--/-- 27 - The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) is founded in England.
1844/--/-- 27 - William Henry Talbot begins his Pencil of Nature, the first book of photographs.
1845/--/-- 28 - American author Margaret Fuller publishes Women in the Nineteenth Century.
1845/--/-- 28 - British archaeologist Austen Layard excavates the sites of Nimrud and Nineveh.
1845/--/-- 28 - Civil War ends in Peru; Castilla Ramon is elected as president.
1845/--/-- 28 - Failure of the potato crop leads to a famine in Ireland.
1845/--/-- 28 - Florida is inaugurated as the 27th state of the Union.
1845/--/-- 28 - French artists Gavarni and Grandville begin designing the first elaborate posters.
1845/--/-- 28 - German composer Robert Schumann writes his Piano Concerto in A minor.
1845/--/-- 28 - German scientist Alexander von Humboldt publishes the first volume of his Kosmos.
1845/--/-- 28 - James K. Polk (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1845/--/-- 28 - Polk is inaugurated as the 11th U.S. president; Dallas becomes vice-president
1845/--/-- 28 - Sir John Franklin leads an ill-fated expedition in search of the Northwest Passage.
1845/--/-- 28 - The Republic of Texas becomes the 28th state of the Union.
1845/--/-- 28 - The Republic of Texas is annexed by the U.S.; it becomes the 28th state of the Union.
1845/--/-- 28 - The Sikh Wars begin in British India.
1845/--/-- 28 - The first clipper ship the Rainbow is built in New York.
1845/--/-- 28 - The term Manifest Destiny is first used in defense of U.S. territorial ambitions.
1846/--/-- 29 - Adolphe Sax patents the saxophone in Paris.
1846/--/-- 29 - American dentist William Morton extracts a tooth using ether as an anesthetic.
1846/--/-- 29 - German astronomer Johann Galle makes the first observation of the planet Neptune.
1846/--/-- 29 - German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach publishes The Essence of Religion.
1846/--/-- 29 - Henry Creswicke Rawlinson deciphers the Mesopotamian cuneiform script.
1846/--/-- 29 - Iowa is inaugurated as the 29th state of the Union.
1846/--/-- 29 - Mexican War
1846/--/-- 29 - Mormon trek from Navoo to Salt Lake City
1846/--/-- 29 - Oregon boundary with Canada established at 49th parallel
1846/--/-- 29 - The Christy Minstrels begin performing in New York.
1846/--/-- 29 - The Mexican War begins over the U.S. annexation of Texas.
1846/--/-- 29 - The Mexican government collapses; Santa Anna is reelected as president.
1846/--/-- 29 - The Smithsonian Institution is created by Congress.
1846/--/-- 29 - The border between the U.S. and Canada is established, settling the Oregon Question.
1846/--/-- 29 - U.S. forces under Stephen Watts Kearny occupy New Mexico.
1846/--/-- 29 - U.S. forces under Zachary Taylor defeat the Mexicans at Palo Alto and Monterrey.
1846/--/-- 29 - Writer and artist Edward Lear publishes A Book of Nonsense.
1847/--/-- 30 - American missionary Marcus Whitman is killed by Cayuse Indians in Oregon.
1847/--/-- 30 - American oceanographer Matthew Maury publishes his first Wind and Current Charts.
1847/--/-- 30 - Charlotte Bronte publishes Jane Eyre; Emily Bronte publishes Wuthering Heights.
1847/--/-- 30 - English novelist William Makepeace Thackeray begins Vanity Fair.
1847/--/-- 30 - Honore de Balzac completes La Comedie humaine, a collection of over 100 novels.
1847/--/-- 30 - Italian statesman Cavour founds the liberal newspaper Il Risorgimento (resurgence).
1847/--/-- 30 - Maria Mitchell, the first woman astronomer in America, discovers a new comet.
1847/--/-- 30 - Mormons and the Indians
1847/--/-- 30 - Scott enters Mexico City after a series of battles; Mexico sues for peace.
1847/--/-- 30 - Sir James Simpson uses chloroform for childbirth
1847/--/-- 30 - Taylor defeats Santa Anna's Mexican army at the Battle of Buena Vista.
1847/--/-- 30 - The African slave colony of Liberia is declared independent.
1847/--/-- 30 - The American Medical Association is founded.
1847/--/-- 30 - The Mormons under Brigham Young found Salt Lake City.
1847/--/-- 30 - The U.S. post office begins using adhesive postage stamps.
1847/--/-- 30 - U.S. forces under Stockton, Fremont and Kearny occupy California.
1847/--/-- 30 - U.S. forces under Winfield Scott land at Veracruz and advance on Mexico City.
1848/--/-- 31 - A Czech uprising under Frantisek Palacky is suppressed by Austria.
1848/--/-- 31 - American engineer James Bogardus begins using cast-iron for building construction.
1848/--/-- 31 - February Revolution by French workers makes Louis Napoleon III President of 2nd Reublic
1848/--/-- 31 - Ferdinand I abdicates; Francis Joseph becomes Emperor of Austria.
1848/--/-- 31 - French Barbizon artist Theodore Rousseau paints the Forest at Fontainebleau.
1848/--/-- 31 - French author Alexandre Dumas (Dumas fils) publishes his novel Camille.
1848/--/-- 31 - Gold discovered in California
1848/--/-- 31 - Holman Hunt, Millais and Rossetti form the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in Britain.
1848/--/-- 31 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto.
1848/--/-- 31 - Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels publish "Communist Manifesto"
1848/--/-- 31 - Louis Philippe abdicates; a Second Republic is declared in France.
1848/--/-- 31 - Mexican Cession
1848/--/-- 31 - Risorgimento leader Garibaldi returns to Italy to fight in the war of independence.
1848/--/-- 31 - Scottish physicist William Thomson Kelvin proposes an absolute temperature scale.
1848/--/-- 31 - The Austrian revolution begins in Vienna; chancellor Metternich resigns.
1848/--/-- 31 - The Revolutions of 1848 break out in Europe.
1848/--/-- 31 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ratifies the cession of California and New Mexico.
1848/--/-- 31 - The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill begins the California gold rush.
1848/--/-- 31 - The first U.S. women's rights assembly meets at the Seneca Falls Convention.
1848/--/-- 31 - Uprisings in Berlin force Frederick William IV to summon a constitutional assembly.
1848/--/-- 31 - Wisconsin is inaugurated as the 30th state of the Union.
1849/--/-- 32 - Amelia Bloomer publicizes bloomers (baggy trousers for women) in the Lily magazine.
1849/--/-- 32 - Austrian forces crush the Italian revolution; Mazzini and Garibaldi flee from Italy.
1849/--/-- 32 - Austrian premier Felix Schwarzenberg uses the Russian army to defeat the Hungarians.
1849/--/-- 32 - Black slave Harriet Tubman escapes and begins her Underground Railway work.
1849/--/-- 32 - Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first woman to obtain a medical degree.
1849/--/-- 32 - Francois Rene de Chateaubriand publishes Memoirs From Beyond the Tomb.
1849/--/-- 32 - French physicist Armand Fizeau measures the velocity of light.
1849/--/-- 32 - Lajos Kossuth declares Hungarian independence from Austria.
1849/--/-- 32 - Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin is deported to Siberia.
1849/--/-- 32 - Taylor is inaugurated as the 12th U.S. president; Fillmore becomes vice-president
1849/--/-- 32 - Zachary Taylor (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1850/--/-- 33 - Allan Pinkerton founds the Pinkerton National Detective Agency.
1850/--/-- 33 - American author Nathaniel Hawthorne writes The Scarlet Letter.
1850/--/-- 33 - American popular songwriter Stephen Foster publishes Camptown Races.
1850/--/-- 33 - California is inaugurated as the 31st state of the Union.
1850/--/-- 33 - Congress reinforces the Fugitive Slave Law for the return of escaped slaves.
1850/--/-- 33 - Elizabeth Barrett Browning publishes her Sonnets From the Portuguese.
1850/--/-- 33 - English author Charles Dickens writes David Copperfield.
1850/--/-- 33 - French realist artist Gustave Courbet paints The Stone Breakers.
1850/--/-- 33 - Jenny Lind the Swedish nightingale begins her U.S. tour.
1850/--/-- 33 - Millard Fillmore (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1850/--/-- 33 - Nathanial Hawthorne "The Scarlet Letter"
1850/--/-- 33 - Photographer Mathew Brady publishes The Gallery of Illustrious Americans.
1850/--/-- 33 - Plains Indians cede land in exchange for reservations
1850/--/-- 33 - President Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th U.S. president.
1850/--/-- 33 - The Compromise of 1850 establishes California as a non-slavery state.
1850/--/-- 33 - The Taiping Rebellion breaks out in China against the Ch'ing dynasty.
1850/--/-- 33 - The first issue of Harper's magazine is published.
1850/--/-- 33 - Utah and New Mexico Territories
1851/--/-- 34 - A gold rush begins in Victoria, Australia; Victoria becomes a separate colony.
1851/--/-- 34 - American author Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick.
1851/--/-- 34 - Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto is produced in Venice.
1851/--/-- 34 - Harriet Beecher Stowe begins publishing Uncle Tom's Cabin.
1851/--/-- 34 - Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones found the New York Times.
1851/--/-- 34 - Isaac Merrit Singer invents the first practical sewing machine.
1851/--/-- 34 - Jacob Fussell begins making ice cream in commercial quantities in Baltimore.
1851/--/-- 34 - Melville "Moby Dick"
1851/--/-- 34 - Mongkut (Rama IV) becomes king of Siam (Thailand).
1851/--/-- 34 - Singer patents sewing machine
1851/--/-- 34 - The Crystal Palace is built in London to house the Great Exhibition.
1851/--/-- 34 - The U.S. yacht America defeats 17 British yachts in the first America's Cup contest.
1851/--/-- 34 - The first college sorority is established at Wesleyan College, Georgia.
1852/--/-- 35 - Argentinean dictator Rosas is defeated by forces under Urquiza at Monte Caseros.
1852/--/-- 35 - Britain gains control of the Irrawaddy delta after the second Anglo-Burma War.
1852/--/-- 35 - The Grimms begin publication of their Deutsches Worterbuch (German Dictionary).
1852/--/-- 35 - The Second Empire begins in France under Napoleon III.
1853/--/-- 36 - A U.S. naval squadron under Matthew Perry enters Tokyo Bay to negotiate a treaty.
1853/--/-- 36 - Chinese rebels capture Nanking and make it the capital of the Taiping kingdom.
1853/--/-- 36 - Crimean War between Turkey, France & Britain against Russia
1853/--/-- 36 - Franklin Pierce (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1853/--/-- 36 - Franklin Pierce is inaugurated as the 14th U.S. president; King becomes vice-president.
1853/--/-- 36 - General Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico for the last time.
1853/--/-- 36 - Georges Haussmann begins the reconstruction of Paris.
1853/--/-- 36 - Napoleon III marries the Empress Eugenie.
1853/--/-- 36 - Richard Wagner begins his cycle of four operas The Ring of The Nibelung.
1853/--/-- 36 - Russia occupies the Turkish principalities of Moldavia and Walachia.
1853/--/-- 36 - The U.S. adds land to New Mexico and Arizona with the Gadsden Purchase.
1853/--/-- 36 - Turkey issues an ultimatum to Russia; the Russians destroy the Turkish fleet at Sinope.
1854/--/-- 37 - A commercial treaty is signed between the U.S. and Japan, ending Japanese isolation.
1854/--/-- 37 - American writer and naturalist Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden.
1854/--/-- 37 - An Anglo-French-Turkish expeditionary force lands at Sevastopol in the Crimea.
1854/--/-- 37 - Britain and France declare war on Russia, beginning the Crimean War.
1854/--/-- 37 - Nebraska and Kansas Territories
1854/--/-- 37 - Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
1854/--/-- 37 - Raphaelite artist Holman Hunt paints The Scapegoat.
1854/--/-- 37 - Republican Party formed for abolition of slavery
1854/--/-- 37 - Smith & Wesson invent revolver
1854/--/-- 37 - The Allied armies defeat the Russians at the Battle of Inkerman.
1854/--/-- 37 - The British grant independence to the Orange Free State in South Africa.
1854/--/-- 37 - The Charge of the Light Brigade is made by the British during the Battle of Balaklava.
1854/--/-- 37 - The Kansas-Nebraska Act reopens the controversy over the spread of slavery.
1854/--/-- 37 - The Republican party is formed after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
1854/--/-- 37 - Upper half of Indian Territory becomes part of Kansas Territory
1854/07/21 38 *** Smith, Mary Ball (Bozarth) & Bozarth, James Henry [Son] - Married married in Smithville, DeKalb County, Tennessee
1855/--/-- 38 - British photographer Roger Fenton documents the Crimean War.
1855/--/-- 38 - Florence Nightingale reforms hygienic standards in Crimean hospitals.
1855/--/-- 38 - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow publishes The Songs of Hiawatha.
1855/--/-- 38 - Lord Palmerston becomes prime minister of Great Britain for the first time.
1855/--/-- 38 - Matthew Fontaine Maury publishes The Physical Geography of the Sea.
1855/--/-- 38 - Mexican dictator Santa Anna is overthrown.
1855/--/-- 38 - Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia dies; he is succeeded by his son Alexander II.
1855/--/-- 38 - Robert Browning publishes his poetry collection Men and Women.
1855/--/-- 38 - Scottish explorer David Livingstone discovers the Victoria Falls in Africa.
1855/--/-- 38 - The Allies occupy the Russian fortress at Sevastapol in the Crimea.
1855/--/-- 38 - The first formal ice hockey game is played in Kingston, Ontario.
1855/--/-- 38 - Walt Whitman publishes his first book of poetry, the Leaves of Grass.
1856/--/-- 39 - A new Opium War begins between China, Britain and France.
1856/--/-- 39 - English chemist William Perkin discovers synthetic dyes.
1856/--/-- 39 - The Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War.
1856/--/-- 39 - The first Neanderthaler (prehistoric human) skeleton is discovered in Germany.
1856/--/-- 39 - Victor Hugo writes Les Miserables during his exile from France.
1857/--/-- 40 - Buchanan is inaugurated as the 15th U.S. president; Breckinridge becomes vice-president.
1857/--/-- 40 - Disputes between Mormons and non-Mormon settlers leads to the Utah War.
1857/--/-- 40 - Elisha Graves Otis installs the first passenger elevator in a New York City store.
1857/--/-- 40 - English author Thomas Hughes publishes Tom Brown's Schooldays.
1857/--/-- 40 - French novelist Gustave Flaubert publishes Madame Bovary.
1857/--/-- 40 - French poet Baudelaire publishes Flowers of Evil and is arrested for immorality.
1857/--/-- 40 - James Buchanan (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1857/--/-- 40 - Kansas ratifies anti-slavery constitution
1857/--/-- 40 - Mormons and Paiute Indians kill 120 settlers in the Mountain Meadows Massacre.
1857/--/-- 40 - The Indian Mutiny begins when Indian troops rebel against the British in Meerut.
1857/--/-- 40 - The Oxford English Dictionary is begun in England.
1858/--/-- 41 - Benito Juarez becomes the first Mexican president of Indian descent.
1858/--/-- 41 - Bernadette Soubirous sees visions of the Vigin Mary in a grotto near Lourdes, France.
1858/--/-- 41 - Britain and France impose the Tientsin Treaty on China.
1858/--/-- 41 - British explorer John Hanning Speke discovers Lake Victoria in Africa.
1858/--/-- 41 - British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace outlines his theories of evolution.
1858/--/-- 41 - Charles Frederick Worth establishes his Paris fashion house.
1858/--/-- 41 - Cyrus W. Field lays the first transatlantic telegraph cable.
1858/--/-- 41 - Federal forces end the Utah War; Brigham Young is replaced as governor of Utah Territory.
1858/--/-- 41 - French photographer Nadar takes the first aerial photograph from a balloon.
1858/--/-- 41 - German-American artist Albert Bierstadt begins his landscapes of the American west.
1858/--/-- 41 - Jacques Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld premiers in Paris.
1858/--/-- 41 - James Renwick begins the design of Saint Patrick's Cathedral in New York City.
1858/--/-- 41 - Minnesota is inaugurated as the 32nd state of the Union.
1858/--/-- 41 - The Fenians (Irish Republican Brotherhood) are founded to overthrow British rule.
1858/--/-- 41 - The Indian Mutiny is suppressed by the British Army and loyal Indian troops.
1858/--/-- 41 - The government of India is transferred from the East India Company to the British crown.
1859/--/-- 42 - Abolitionist John Brown leads an attack on Harpers Ferry; he is captured and executed.
1859/--/-- 42 - Charles Darwin "Origin of Species"
1859/--/-- 42 - Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
1859/--/-- 42 - Ferdinand de Lesseps begins building the Suez Canal in Egypt.
1859/--/-- 42 - French inventor Ferdinand Carre develops a refrigeration system.
1859/--/-- 42 - Napoleon III assists the Italian statesman Cavour in a war against Austria.
1859/--/-- 42 - Oregon is inaugurated as the 33rd state of the Union.
1859/--/-- 42 - Queensland becomes a separate colony of Australia.
1860/--/-- 43 - Abraham Lincoln is elected as the first Republican president of the United States.
1860/--/-- 43 - China resists the Tientsin Treaty; Anglo-French forces occupy Peking.
1860/--/-- 43 - English novelist Wilkie Collins writes The Woman in White.
1860/--/-- 43 - Florence Nightingale establishes a school for training nurses.
1860/--/-- 43 - George Eliot (Mary Anne Evans) publishes The Mill on the Floss.
1860/--/-- 43 - Italian patriot Garibaldi invades Sicily and Naples with his 1,000 Redshirts.
1860/--/-- 43 - Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir patents the first internal-combustion engine.
1860/--/-- 43 - Sardinia-Piedmont seizes the Papal States in Italy.
1860/--/-- 43 - South Carolina becomes the first Southern state to secede from the Union.
1860/--/-- 43 - The Crittenden Compromise tries to prevent a split between slave and free states.
1860/--/-- 43 - The Maori Wars begin against the British in New Zealand.
1860/--/-- 43 - The pony express is inaugurated to deliver mail from Missouri to California.
1861/--/-- 44 - Abraham Lincoln (Republican) becomes president of the United States
1861/--/-- 44 - American locksmith Linus Yale Jr. patents the cylinder lock.
1861/--/-- 44 - CONFEDERACY
1861/--/-- 44 - Civil War Begins
1861/--/-- 44 - English designer William Morris starts the Arts and Crafts Movement.
1861/--/-- 44 - Explorers Burke and Wills die during their north-south crossing of Australia.
1861/--/-- 44 - French artist Eugene Delacroix paints the Lion Hunt.
1861/--/-- 44 - General George B. McClellan is made commander of the Union forces.
1861/--/-- 44 - Italy is unified under Victor Emmanuel II.
1861/--/-- 44 - John Ericsson designs the Monitor, the first ship with a revolving gun-turret.
1861/--/-- 44 - Kansas is inaugurated as the 34th state of the Union.
1861/--/-- 44 - Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th U.S. president; Hamlin becomes vice-president.
1861/--/-- 44 - Nicholas II abolishes serfdom in Russia.
1861/--/-- 44 - The Confederate States of America declare their independence from the U.S.
1861/--/-- 44 - The Confederates defeat the Union army in the First Battle of Bull Run.
1861/--/-- 44 - The Southern states meet to draft a constitution; Davis is selected as president.
1861/--/-- 44 - The Trent Affair begins when a Union ship intercepts a British steamer.
1861/--/-- 44 - The United States introduce the first national income tax.
1861/--/-- 44 - The bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor begins the U.S. Civil War.
1861/--/-- 44 - Unification of Italy
1861/--/-- 44 - Western territories reorganized by Republican Congresses
1862/--/-- 45 - A Union fleet under David G. Farragut captures New Orleans.
1862/--/-- 45 - Bartolome Mitre unites Argentina and is elected president.
1862/--/-- 45 - Brady, O'Sullivan and Gardner document the Civil War in photographs.
1862/--/-- 45 - Explorer John McDouall Stuart makes the first south to north crossing of Australia.
1862/--/-- 45 - Foucault measures speed of light
1862/--/-- 45 - French actress Sarah Bernhardt makes her debut at the Comedie Francaise.
1862/--/-- 45 - French impressionist artist Edouard Manet paints Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe.
1862/--/-- 45 - French physicist Jean Foucault successfully measures the speed of light.
1862/--/-- 45 - French writer Victor Hugo completes his social novel Les Miserables.
1862/--/-- 45 - Lee defeats the Union army in the Second Battle of Bull Run.
1862/--/-- 45 - Lee's Confederate invasion of Maryland is halted at the Battle of Antietam.
1862/--/-- 45 - McClellan is defeated in the Seven Days Battle and retreats from the peninsular.
1862/--/-- 45 - Napoleon III imposes the Austrian prince Maximilian as emperor of Mexico.
1862/--/-- 45 - Richard J. Gatling invents the first practical machine gun.
1862/--/-- 45 - Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev publishes Fathers and Sons.
1862/--/-- 45 - The first recorded ski competition is held near Oslo in Norway.
1862/--/-- 45 - The ironclad warships Monitor and Merrimack clash at Hampton Roads, Va.
1862/--/-- 45 - Union forces under Burnside are defeated at the Battle of Fredricksburg.
1862/--/-- 45 - Union forces under Grant defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Shiloh.
1862/--/-- 45 - Union forces under McClellan begin the Peninsular Campaign to capture Richmond.
1862/--/-- 45 - William I appoints Otto von Bismarck as minister president of Prussia.
1863/--/-- 46 - Cambodia (Kampuchea) becomes a French protectorate.
1863/--/-- 46 - English philosopher John Stuart Mill publishes Utilitarianism.
1863/--/-- 46 - French impressionist artist Camille Pissarro exhibits at the Salon des Refuses.
1863/--/-- 46 - George I succeeds Otto as king of Greece.
1863/--/-- 46 - Grant defeats the Confederates in the Vicksburg Campaign.
1863/--/-- 46 - Ismail Pasha rules Egypt under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
1863/--/-- 46 - Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation abolishes slavery in the Confederate states.
1863/--/-- 46 - London's Metropolitan Railway becomes the first underground subway.
1863/--/-- 46 - The Confederate guerrilla band Quantrill's Raiders pillage Lawrence, Kansas.
1863/--/-- 46 - The Confederates defeat the Union army at Chancellorsville; Jackson is killed.
1863/--/-- 46 - The Confederates under Lee are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg.
1863/--/-- 46 - The French occupy Mexico City in support of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico.
1863/--/-- 46 - The London Football Association issues the first soccer rules.
1863/--/-- 46 - West Virginia is inaugurated as the 35th state of the Union.
1864/--/-- 47 - A Chinese army under Gordon recaptures Nanking and ends the Taiping Rebellion.
1864/--/-- 47 - A Union army under Sherman invades Georgia, begining the Atlanta campaign.
1864/--/-- 47 - Cheyenne and Arapaho families massacred at Sand Creek, Colorado
1864/--/-- 47 - Denmark is defeated by Prussia; Schleswig-Holstein is ceded to Germany.
1864/--/-- 47 - Nevada is inaugurated as the 36th state of the Union.
1864/--/-- 47 - Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano Lopez begins the War of the Triple Alliance.
1864/--/-- 47 - Sherman defeats the Confederates at Atlanta and begins his march to the sea.
1864/--/-- 47 - The Colorado militia massacre Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek.
1864/--/-- 47 - The Confederate submarine Hunley sinks a Federal ship but is sunk in the process.
1864/--/-- 47 - The Geneva Convention sets standards of humane treatment in time of war.
1864/--/-- 47 - The Ionian Islands are ceded to Greece by Britain.
1864/--/-- 47 - The Union launches a drive on Richmond but falters in the Wilderness Campaign.
1864/--/-- 47 - Ulysses S. Grant is made general in chief of all the Union armies.
1865/--/-- 48 - Andrew Johnson (Republican) becomes president of the United States
1865/--/-- 48 - Andrew Johnson becomes the 17th President of the U.S.
1865/--/-- 48 - Civil War Ends
1865/--/-- 48 - Confederate forces under Lee surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House.
1865/--/-- 48 - Count Leo Tolstoi begins his monumental Russian novel War and Peace.
1865/--/-- 48 - English author Lewis Carroll writes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
1865/--/-- 48 - Johnston surrenders the last Confederate army to Sherman, ending the U.S. Civil War.
1865/--/-- 48 - Leo Tolstoy "War and Peace"
1865/--/-- 48 - Lincoln assassinated
1865/--/-- 48 - Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C.
1865/--/-- 48 - Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky publishes Crime and Punishment.
1865/--/-- 48 - The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolishes slavery.
1865/--/-- 48 - The Petersburg Campaign is won by Union forces; Lee evacuates Richmond.
1866/--/-- 49 - British engineer Robert Whitehead invents the first self-propelled torpedo.
1866/--/-- 49 - Congress authorize (but do not mandate) the use of the metric system in the U.S.
1866/--/-- 49 - Mendel publishes his genetic research in Experiments With Plant Hybrids.
1866/--/-- 49 - Prussia and Italy defeat Austria in the Seven Weeks' War.
1866/--/-- 49 - The Ku Klux Klan is founded in the southern United States.
1867/--/-- 50 *** Bozarth, Elijah [Grandson] - Born to Bozarth, James Henry and Smith, Mary Ball (Bozarth)
1867/--/-- 50 - Alfred Nobel patents dynamite
1867/--/-- 50 - Bismark forms the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership.
1867/--/-- 50 - Diamond fields are discovered in South Africa.
1867/--/-- 50 - English photographer Julia Margaret Cameron takes Sir John Herschel's portrait.
1867/--/-- 50 - French troops withdraw from Mexico; Emperor Maximilian is executed by Juarez.
1867/--/-- 50 - Karl Marx publishes the first volume of Das Kapital.
1867/--/-- 50 - Nebraska is inaugurated as the 37th state of the Union.
1867/--/-- 50 - Sir John A. Macdonald becomes Canada's first prime minister.
1867/--/-- 50 - The Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 creates the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
1867/--/-- 50 - The Dominion of Canada is established by the British North America Act.
1868/--/-- 51 - A military coup led by General Juan Prim deposes Queen Isabella II of Spain.
1868/--/-- 51 - A skeleton of Cro-Magnon man is discovered in southern France.
1868/--/-- 51 - British labor unions form the Trades Union Congress.
1868/--/-- 51 - Christopher Sholes patents the first practical typewriter.
1868/--/-- 51 - Chulalongkorn succeeds his father Mongkut as the king of Siam (Thailand).
1868/--/-- 51 - Feminists Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton publish Revolution.
1868/--/-- 51 - Johannes Brahms' A German Requiem is performed for the first time.
1868/--/-- 51 - Ndebele king Mzilikazi dies in Africa; he is succeeded (1870) by his son Lobengula.
1868/--/-- 51 - The Meiji dynasty is restored in Japan; the Tokugawa shogunate is abolished.
1868/--/-- 51 - The Ten Years' War begins in Cuba against Spanish rule.
1868/--/-- 51 - U.S. President Andrew Johnson is impeached by Congress but acquitted by the Senate.
1868/--/-- 51 - William Gladstone becomes Liberal prime minister of Britain for the first time.
1869/--/-- 52 - 200 pitched battles between Indians and U.S. Calvary
1869/--/-- 52 - English author Matthew Arnold publishes Culture and Anarchy.
1869/--/-- 52 - French artist Eugene Louis Boudin paints On the Beach at Deauville.
1869/--/-- 52 - Grant is inaugurated as the 18th U.S. president; Colfax becomes vice-president.
1869/--/-- 52 - James Gordon Bennett Jr. commissions Stanley to search for Livingston in Africa.
1869/--/-- 52 - John Roebling designs the Brooklyn Bridge but dies after a construction accident.
1869/--/-- 52 - Louis Riel leads the Red River Rebellion in Canada.
1869/--/-- 52 - Ludwig II (Mad Ludwig) begins building his fantasy castles in Bavaria.
1869/--/-- 52 - Philadelphia garment workers organize the Knights of Labor, an early labor union.
1869/--/-- 52 - Pope Pius IX calls the First Vatican Council to discuss the dogma of papal infallibility.
1869/--/-- 52 - Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky begins work on his opera Boris Gudunov.
1869/--/-- 52 - Suez Canal opens
1869/--/-- 52 - The Cincinnati Red Stockings become the first professional baseball team.
1869/--/-- 52 - The Suez Canal is opened in Egypt.
1869/--/-- 52 - The first manufacturing patent is issued for chewing gum.
1869/--/-- 52 - The transcontinental railroad is completed at Promontory Point, Utah.
1869/--/-- 52 - Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) becomes president of the United States
1869/--/-- 52 - Union Pacific meets Central Pacific
1870/--/-- 53 - American industrialist John D. Rockefeller founds the Standard Oil Company.
1870/--/-- 53 - French war minister Leon Gambetta escapes from besieged Paris in a balloon.
1870/--/-- 53 - German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavates the ancient city of Troy.
1870/--/-- 53 - Paraguayan dictator Solano Lopez dies, ending the War of the Triple Alliance.
1870/--/-- 53 - Rome becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.
1870/--/-- 53 - The Franco-Prussian War begins over a diplomatic incident engineered by Bismark.
1870/--/-- 53 - The Prussians defeat the French at Sedan; Napoleon III is taken prisoner.
1870/--/-- 53 - The Third Republic is formed in France; a Government of National Defense is established.
1870/--/-- 53 - The city of Miami is founded in Florida.
1871/--/-- 54 - American explorer Henry Morton Stanley finds Dr. Livingston in central Africa.
1871/--/-- 54 - Charles Taze Russell founds the Jehovah's Witnesses about this time.
1871/--/-- 54 - Fire destroys one-third of the city of Chicago.
1871/--/-- 54 - P.T Barnum launches a traveling circus, museum and menagerie.
1871/--/-- 54 - The Franco-Prussian War ends; Alsace and Lorraine are ceded to Germany.
1871/--/-- 54 - The French surrender to Prussia incites the Commune of Paris uprising.
1871/--/-- 54 - The German Empire is formally proclaimed at the Palace of Versailles.
1871/--/-- 54 - The Paris Commune is suppressed by government troops after a 2-month siege.
1871/--/-- 54 - Trade Unions legalized in Britain
1871/06/18 55 *** Bozarth, Mary Elizabeth "Betty" (Goff) [Granddaughter] - Born to Bozarth, James Henry and Smith, Mary Ball (Bozarth)
1872/--/-- 55 - American artist James McNeill Whistler paints the Portrait of the Artist's Mother.
1872/--/-- 55 - English author George Eliot (Mary Anne Evans) publishes Middlemarch.
1872/--/-- 55 - Indian leader Kintpuash leaves the Modoc reservation; the Modoc Wars begin.
1872/--/-- 55 - Monet paints Impression: Sunrise; the term impressionism is derived from the title.
1872/--/-- 55 - Photographer Eadweard Muybridge begins his series of motion studies.
1872/--/-- 55 - The Challenger Expedition begins the first systematic oceanographic survey.
1872/--/-- 55 - The cities of Buda and Pest unite to form Budapest (the capital of Hungary from 1918).
1872/--/-- 55 - The death of Kamehameha V ends the Kamehameha dynasty of Hawaiian kings.
1872/--/-- 55 - The first woman impressionist artist Berthe Morisot paints The Cradle.
1873/--/-- 56 - Englishman Maj. Walter Clopton Wingfield invents lawn tennis.
1873/--/-- 56 - French novelist Jules Verne publishes Around the World in Eighty Days.
1873/--/-- 56 - The Pacific Scandal in Canada causes the collapse of the Conservative government.
1873/--/-- 56 - The Panic of 1873 leads to 5 years of economic depression in the U.S.
1874/--/-- 57 - Benjamin Disraeli becomes the Conservative prime minister of Britain.
1874/--/-- 57 - English author Thomas Hardy publishes Far from the Madding Crowd.
1874/--/-- 57 - First impressionist exhibit in Paris
1874/--/-- 57 - French impressionist artist Pierre Auguste Renoir paints La Loge (The Box).
1874/--/-- 57 - The Comanche, Kiowa and other Indian tribes attack Adobe Walls in Texas.
1874/--/-- 57 - The Greenback party advocates currency reform in the U.S.
1874/--/-- 57 - The first exhibition of impressionist paintings is held in Paris.
1875/--/-- 58 - American author Mark Twain publishes Tom Sawyer.
1875/--/-- 58 - Britain buys Suez Canal shares from the bankrupt Egyptian leader Ismail Pasha.
1875/--/-- 58 - Charles Stewart Parnell begins movement for Irish independence
1875/--/-- 58 - Georges Bizet's opera Carmen is performed in Paris.
1875/--/-- 58 - Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, publishes Science and Health.
1875/--/-- 58 - The Bourbon monarchy is restored in Spain under Alfonso XII.
1876/--/-- 59 - Abd al-Hamid II assumes his rule as the last Ottoman sultan.
1876/--/-- 59 - Alexander Graham Bell patents his invention of the telephone.
1876/--/-- 59 - Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
1876/--/-- 59 - British philosopher Herbert Spencer begins publishing the Principles of Sociology.
1876/--/-- 59 - Colorado is inaugurated as the 38th state of the Union.
1876/--/-- 59 - General Porfirio Diaz seizes power as the dictator of Mexico.
1876/--/-- 59 - German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavates the ancient city of Mycenae.
1876/--/-- 59 - Impressionist artist Alfred Sisley paints Flood at the Port of Marly.
1876/--/-- 59 - Japan forces Korea to open up to foreign trade, countering the influence of China.
1876/--/-- 59 - Johann Strauss Jr. composes his waltz The Beautiful Blue Danube.
1876/--/-- 59 - National League founded (baseball)
1876/--/-- 59 - Queen Victoria assumes the title of Empress of India.
1876/--/-- 59 - Sioux Indians defeat General Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
1876/--/-- 59 - Sioux and Cheyenne defeat Custer at Little Big Horn, Montanna
1876/--/-- 59 - The Bayreuth musical festival opens with a performance of Wagner's Ring cycle.
1876/--/-- 59 - The U.S. Centennial Exposition of 1876 is held in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia.
1877/--/-- 60 - Britain annexes Transvaal in South Africa.
1877/--/-- 60 - Chief Joseph leads the Nez Perce tribe against the U.S. Army.
1877/--/-- 60 - Hayes is inaugurated as the 19th U.S. president; Wheeler becomes vice-president
1877/--/-- 60 - Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli observes canali (channels) on Mars.
1877/--/-- 60 - Nez Perce leave Idaho for Canada
1877/--/-- 60 - Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) becomes president of the United States
1877/--/-- 60 - Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake is performed by the Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow.
1877/--/-- 60 - The All-England lawn tennis championship is played at Wimbledon for the first time.
1877/--/-- 60 - The Japanese army suppresses a samurai revolt led by Saigo Takamori.
1877/--/-- 60 - Thomas Edison invents the phonograph.
1877/--/-- 60 - Turkish suppression of Balkan nationalists leads to a new Russo-Turkish War.
1878/--/-- 61 - Ismail Pasha presents Cleopatra's Needles to Britain (1878) and the U.S. (1880).
1878/--/-- 61 - Northern Cheyenne escape Indian Territory
1878/--/-- 61 - Serbia, Montenegro and Romania are granted independence from Turkey.
1878/--/-- 61 - The Congress of Berlin reverses Russian gains from the San Stefano Treaty.
1878/--/-- 61 - The D'Oyly Carte Opera Company performs Gilbert and Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore.
1878/--/-- 61 - The Russo-Turkish War ends; The Treaty of San Stefano is imposed on Turkey.
1878/--/-- 61 - The second Anglo-Afghan War begins.
1878/--/-- 61 - Turkey's provinces of Bosnia and Hercegovina are placed under Austrian administration.
1879/--/-- 62 *** Burton, Nancy Allen (Bozarth) - Died died before 1880 White County, Tennessee
1879/--/-- 62 - Belgian king Leopold II sponsors Henry Morton Stanley's expedition to the Congo.
1879/--/-- 62 - Cetewayo's Zulus defeat the British at Isandhlwana, but are beaten at Ulundi.
1879/--/-- 62 - Charles Stewart Parnell leads the Home Rule for Ireland party.
1879/--/-- 62 - General Roca defeats the Patagonian Indians, opening the Pampas for settlement.
1879/--/-- 62 - Impressionist artist Edgar Degas paints Ballerina Posing for a Photograph.
1879/--/-- 62 - Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen writes A Doll's House.
1879/--/-- 62 - Tawfiq Pasha succeeds his father Ismail Pasha as khedive (viceroy) of Egypt.
1879/--/-- 62 - Territorial disputes lead to the War of the Pacific between Chile and Peru.
1879/--/-- 62 - Thomas Edison develops the first workable incandescent lamp (light bulb).
1879/--/-- 62 - Thomas Edison invents incandescent light

In 1816 Transportation was by:
          Foot
          Horse
          Sailing ship
          Bicycle
          Steamboat
By 1879 Transportation was by:
          Train
in addition.
By 1879 Transportation by:
          Sailing ship
had been discontinued.

In 1816 Communications was by:
          Word of Mouth
          Post Office
By 1879 Communications was by:
          Telegraph
in addition.

In 1816 Food Preparation was by:
          Wood

In 1816 Entertainment was by:
          Social Intercourse
          Organized Sports
          Travel
          Professional Sports
          Movies
          Radio
          Television
          Theme parks
          Computer

In 1816 Health Care was by:
          Operations
          Anesthetic
          X-Rays
          MRI

In 1816 War Making was by:
          Calvary
          gun
          Artillery
          Submarine
By 1879 War Making was by:
          Machine guns
          Iron Clad ships
          Mines
in addition.

In 1816 Navigation was by:
          Stars & Maps
          Compass

from the SFHR database of Duane Bristow 10-13-2019 12:22:36


Index

Family and Social Relations

of Burton, Nancy Allen (Bozarth) 1816/02/05

Index

Last revised 10/13/19.